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A barrel chest is found in advanced emphysema because in this condition, there is an over distention of the air spaces. This type of emphysema is the panlobular. In panlobular, all air spaces are enlarged in the lobule.

Tracheotomy is the procedure of making an incision in the trachea to provide a temporary air passage when an obstruction above the trachea prevents breathing while Tracheostomy is also making an opening in the neck to facilitate good breathing and to remove secretions in the lungs. In Tracheotomy, there is obstruction above the voice box because of the following reasons like Severe Pneumonia.

Tracheotomy is also done because of Respiratory failure, frequent stoppage of breathing during sleep, dysphagia and a cancerous throat. There will be complications of the procedure like hemorrhage, tracheostomy tube displacement or being dislodge, hypotension, irregular apical pulse, emphysema and dysphagia.

Bronchodilator drugs are the drugs used to help mobilize secretions in the lungs. They liquefy the secretions for it to be easily expelled out from the body. The common bronchodilator drug includes the following: albuterol, albuterol sulfate, atropine sulfate, salbutamol, and ventolin.

There are still lots of bronchodilator drugs used for patients with lung problem. These types of drugs are used for patients with asthma, and bronchitis. The types of bronchodilators include the Sympathomimetics, Xanthines and Corticosteroids.

They are used directly into the lungs by either using the Inhalers, Insufflation Cartridges and Nebulizers. Side effects of these drugs are dry mouth, blurred vision, difficulty urinating, palpitations, trembling, headaches and nausea.

Some of these drugs should be taken with strict precautions especially in those patients with cardiovascular problems, thyroid problems and those with Hypertension.

Air enters through the nose and the cilia filters it as it passes the nasal cavity. Then the air passes through the pharynx then to the larynx, which is the upper part of the trachea. After passing through the larynx, air now moves into the bronchi and bronchioles that let the air pass in and out of the lungs.

Pleura, is a serous membrane that lines the lungs and wall of the thorax. It is compose of two parts. Namely: the visceral and parietal pleura. Visceral pleura cover the lungs while the Parietal pleura line the thorax.  An infection in the pleura is called pleurisy. Pleurisy usually is indicated by a sharp pain when drawing a deep breath.

The pain is caused by the stretching of the inflamed tissue. The symptoms includes; fever and a cough. Pleurisy results from infection, chiefly in cases of Pneumonia and Influenza. If pus forms in the pleural cavity, the condition is called Empyema or Pyothorax. Pleurisy is treated with heat called applications and antibiotics.

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