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The four processes of physical examination include, the IPPA namely; Inspection, Palpation, Percussion and Auscultation.

First is Inspection, during inspection the physician looks at the color of the client’s skin; the architecture, if there is protrusion; if it is asymmetrical or not, and its contour. Then in Palpation, the physician assesses if what is noted during inspection is correct or not and to know if there is infection or rebound tenderness.

The sense of touch is being used during palpation. Temperature, texture, moisture and any swelling, lumps and thickness are being assessed. There are things to consider in palpation. During palpation, use the distal surface of the four fingers in a counter clockwise manner. It should be 4-6 cm or 2-3 inches deep. The tender area should be palpated last.

Percussion, is use to assess presence of masses in a certain organ in the body especially in the abdomen. The sounds heard during percussion includes tympanic which can be heard in an area that has air; dull, if there is an organ underneath; flat, if a bony structure is percussed; resonant, is a normal sound when you percuss an area; the hyper Resonant, when there is pneumothorax or emphysema and the friction rub, which is heard if the two organs are being rubbed.

Infectious is the word to describe an illness or a disease that is very contaminating or has the ability to contaminate while communicable is the word to describe if the infectious agent is being transmitted to other persons either by airborne, direct or indirect contact.

What is Health? Health is the state of equilibrium of the person in all aspects like the physical, emotional, and spiritual and especially the mental aspect.

Ancillary Department is a department in the hospital that helps the pathologist or a specialist in identifying the cause of an illness and how to treat it. Two examples of these are the Laboratory and the Diagnostic Imaging or the Radiology and also known as the X-Ray Department, they visualize parts of the body which is greatly affected with the client’s current condition.

Hospice or Hospice care is the care of the dying individual and his family. It is used to make better the quality of life a terminally ill person and to support the family in the grieving process. It maybe in the client’s home or in the health care facility. It focuses on the holistic care, which considers the totality of the person.

That even though the client is terminally ill, they still deserve an environment that is stressed free, neat and conducive to rest. The health care team also prepares the family of the concerned loved one of the grieving or the bereavement process they will undertake. The goal of hospice care is to give the client a dignified death.

Reference:

Kozier, Barbara. Health. Fundamentals of Nursing. Pages 171-179. 2001.

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