The concept of Naturally Occurring Retirement Communities (NORCs) bears the references to neighborhoods as well as the housing developments in which are the concentrated residence of the majority of the seniors’ as well as the elderly the UJC’s National Naturally Occurring.
Retirement Communities Initiative for Aging in Place is responsible for offering the assistance to the Federations as well as the social service agencies for the Jewish in the anticipation of obtaining the Federal appropriations for the purpose of the achievement of health as well as supportive services in a direct way to the residents of the NORC.
The Jews as well as the non Jews are beneficiaries to this arrangement in the anticipation of the maintenance of their independence, the dignity as well as the quality of their personal lives, and their own security, all facilitating that aging is in place (Petty, 2001).
The specific inclusion of the NORC programming is a broad variety involving programs of health as well as supportive services that are based on the community. The range of the services are such as the ones provided by the nurses as well as the social workers, the transportation services, services dealing with home repair as well as seniors programs. NORCs refer to a unity in conceptual diversity.
This is presented in residential housing which includes all the categories of apartments, cooperatives, the condominiums as well as neighborhoods containing attached as well as dwellings of single families which offers the residence to older adults in large concentrations. In the entire country there is the presence of NORCs.
These are spread out in the urban, suburban as well as rural areas. Their evolution is natural primarily imputed to the process of aging in the context of the population. The alternative to this is achieved through the process of senior’s migration on a large scale to occupy particular buildings as well as specific neighborhoods (Rollinson, 2001).
The latest data obtainable indicates that in the tune of 90% of the entire population of the seniors are destined by way of necessity to live in homes of their own for the rest of their life irrespective of the fact that they either grow frail or not.
Majority of the homes as well as the communities that are responsible for offering residence to the seniors are devoid of an initial design as well as lack the intention to address the requirements as well as the challenges facing the daily life that is closely associated with age. This is a situation that is prevalent across America in consideration of the entire settings.
They are responsible for the creation of the most vital challenges in as far as the health as well seniors’ population social well being is concerned. Initiatives such as the Aging in Place Washington group are meant to help provide assistance to Jewish community in the entire country. This is then used for setting up NORCs in the communities (Callahan, 2003).
The structures of NORCs distinguish them from other alternative supportive services in a variety of approaches.
The approaches include for instance offering of seniors various services close to their residences. Such include efforts to offer services to the seniors in the location of their residence; its tendency to rely on the activism of the community as well as the volunteerism with respect to the healthy seniors as well as the younger volunteers; and finally, the application of funding sources in the context of the private as well as the public sectors covering the range of building the owners as well as the managers.
It is important to additionally assert that the programs of the supportive services as offered under the umbrella of NORCs are naturally comprehensive as well as destined for the building as well as rebuilding of the community’s social fabric.
There is the existence of a basket of services that are generally prescribed covering the range of social activities, the aspects of recreation, the social work as well as case management, the services involving health care as well as prevention; in a general perspective the requirements as well as the needs of every particular community is the determinant of the entire services mix (Peck, 2002).
The NORC initiatives focus on community based innovative services that are as pertains the keeping at per with the existing policy direction in the context of the United States. The aging administration was under articulation during the latest “National Summit on Creating Caring Communities” (Callahan, 2003).
The initiative is in line with legislative calls made by Senate’s Special Committee on Aging with the principle responsibility of the promotion of the programs that are innovative for the purpose of the improvement of the seniors’ independence in the process of the contemplation of the Baby Boom of the nation that is under pending situation.
Furthermore, there is a tendency of the reliance of the initiative on historic relationships of the government to the providers of health as well human services in the process of the caring of the elderly in the nation. The initiative also has the provision of community support funding in the context of every quarter of every demonstration.
The American Jewish community in Washington Office works with a number of other Federations, community partners as well as beneficiary agencies from the time of its inception (Howe, 2004).This has brought about the success of the establishment of twenty nine projects responsible for demonstration in a total of twenty one states.
The future aspirations of the Office of UJC’s in Washington at the moment is some efforts for the development of the initiative achieved through establishing some additional fifty projects meant for the purpose of the demonstration at the national level during the 205 fiscal year.
The Impact on Public Health
Policy makers have the responsibility of ensuring the implementation of measures that may boost the successful approach to aging through offering home based support in as far as the community is concerned. It is a clear fact that the opinion of the majority of the elderly is to remain in homes of their own for the longest possible time.
For the purpose of the realization of the above mentioned goal therefore, it is important that the elderly are accorded the best possible care in as far as health as well as social services are concerned for the purpose of the maintenance of the individuals independence in the context of their homes.
This also facilitates for their forestalling for an early as well as unnecessary institutionalization in the context of an acute as well as long term facility responsible for care (Stuart & Weinrich, 2001).
Research indicates that the population of the aged based on the scale of above 65 years is destined to double over the coming thirty years.
This has necessitated the policy makers to design as well as implement some models necessary for the purpose of the delivery of services responsible for support in the consideration of the escalating demand of services of such nature, the home based senior’s preferences services as well as the most likely need for the funding of the public for the purpose of assisting in the payments of the services required by the needy (Sutton, 2000).
Campaign for Change
It is to the accurate opinion of the President that the cornerstone of a policy that is responsible for the promotion of good health is based on the fact of the implementation as well as the promotion of decision making by the providers of the healthcare as well as the patient.
It is through the realization of this goal that HSAs and similar products are charged with the responsibilities of the encouragement of consumer ownership of decision making involving healthcare as well as allowing the Americans to rip the benefits imputed to the affordability as well as the flexibility of HSAs as well as plans that are HSAs eligible (Sykes & Hunt, 2007).
As Hunt & Ross, put forward during the candidature of Governor Bush during 2000, “he promised to expand the availability of account-based plans to provide health care alternatives and savings to American families, and has championed HSAs throughout his presidency.
During his tenure in office there was the passage of a Medicare reform bill President Bush signed into law in December 2003, and he is working to build on the success of HSAs by changing the tax code to give all Americans better access to affordable health insurance” (Hunt & Ross, 2000).
There exists an associate Health Savings Account in the context of HAS- qualified plans for the purpose of insurance with the responsibility of covering the most significant expenses, in which case there is an inclusion of the preventive care as well as the provision of security in as far as the escalating unexpected bills are concerned.
The insurance plans that have qualified for the purpose of HAS may be associated with deductibility’s of the highest order but have the provision of savings as provided for by the low premiums that are at the disposal of the account funding. The employers as well are duty bound to make some contributions towards the HSAs of their employees.
Other possible benefits of HSAs can be noted as including the following: Ownership as well as Portability in which a case the funds of the account are unchangeable throughout the years resembling the IRA. In the situation the rule of “use it or lose it” is usually invalid in as far as the HSAs are concerned.
The person concerned is required to maintain personal HAS even in the situation of changing their occupations, become unemployed or even changing their coverage to an alternative plan that should also be HAS-eligible. The most cherished attribute in as far as HSAs are concerned is that they are assets that can be inherited (Solomon, 2001).
Savings is yet another benefit that is associated with the application of HAS. The contributions made by various policy-makers are taxed basing on their accounts. Any upcoming earnings in as far as the accounts are concerned appears as tax-free as is the case with the withdrawals from similar accounts in as far as the qualified medical expenses are concerned. Contributions are not taken as part of the wages as well as the income of the employee.
There is also a benefit of flexibility associated with this plan in the situation whereby the patients are at liberty to make the application of HAS funds for the purposes of financing their medical expenses not covered by their insurance plan. This contributes to the saving of the money required for the future needs (Tilly & Wiener, 2001).
These may range from the premiums for health insurance as well as the medical expenses for the individuals who are not employed, after retirement as well as the expenses responsible for the long term care and insurance.
Finally, the plan is also associated with control. This has to do with the ability of decision makers to come up with measures responsible for the determination of the extent of the contribution. Further decisions involve the payment of current expenses by the use of their accounts or make savings for the purposes of the expenses of the future.
The exact medical expenses to be paid for through the accounts, the company responsible for holding of the account as well as decisions related to the investment of the money in as far as the account is concerned (Sheehan, 2005).
There exists a difference between Naturally Occurring Retirement Communities NORCs and healthy NORCs and how they have varying health benefits with seniors depending on the type of community.
It has been hypothesized that environmental determinants bears diverse impact on individual based on different ages as well as a report indicating how NORC environments that are equipped to keep seniors more physically and socially active than other NORCs have shown to exhibit increased health benefits
There is a requirement to outline the NORC programs as unique settings to provide supportive service programs to the elderly populations. The most crucial issue is the focus on New York State and its NORC history and experience developing supportive service programs within NORCs.
The accomplishments and benefits as well as issues of supportive services should be the motive of the program with the intention of the application of the valuable information for the purpose of shaping the future programs is reported on.
Mitty & Mezey research the growing number of elderly that live in their communities or at home while living with chronic illnesses that require health care services.
They argue that the overwhelming preference is for the elderly that may be physically dependant or chronically ill to “age in place” and receive much, if not all of their health care services while living in their own domiciles, in NORCS, and in public and private funded adult housing residents or independent living facilities (Yalowitz, 2006).
It opinion according to the opinion of Willging that has also been documented that there are factors important in older individuals’ attraction to as well as satisfaction with apartment complexes that become naturally occurring retirement communities (NORCs). There has been the implementation of policy moves aimed at examining of the relative importance of various apartment complex attributes in attracting older and younger people to apartments that have and have not become NORCs.
The data was obtained by using a multi-attribute scaling procedure and the results are presented from two main perspectives: a comparison of the factors attracting older residents to NORCs and non-NORCs; and a comparison of the factors attracting older and younger residents to NORCs (Willging, 2004).
Vladeck also addresses “federal policies on housing for the elderly and the devolution of funding for federal senior housing and describes two aspects of devolution of federal housing policy for the elderly.
It first identifies a diminishing national interest in older housing authorities as indicated by the decreased amount of funds allocated for this purpose. It also points out the need for support of senior housing residents and how federal funds have not addressed this need adequately or sufficiently. As a consequence, there have emerged Naturally Occurring Retirement Communities an arrangement that provides supportive and health services to all eligible residents” (Vladeck, 2004 p. 121).
Community-based, multi-user tele-health interventions may be especially relevant for older adults who have multiple chronic health problems and who are members of the organized. This report identifies the best strategies as presented by the relevant managers (Wiener ; Stevenson, 2005).
In this article, the researchers examine the relationship between the perceived needs and assessed needs of community-dwelling seniors. The Naturally Occurring Retirement Community Baseline Survey was administered to 268 community-dwelling older adults in suburban Maryland.
The survey measured perceived and assessed needs in the domains of health and function, mental health, sensory function, and health behaviors with the results showing a high prevalence of needs among older adults and yet low service use by those with needs for these services. The implications for future investigation into the needs of older adults are explored (Scardamalia, 2002).
There also exist the relocation concerns of a group of older adults in a suburban naturally-occurring retirement community (NORC). Older people need to stay where they are used top and frequently require support and services to help them age in place.
About a quarter of respondents involved in the study reported having to move in the next few years. Residents who were worried differed from those who did not worry on a number of demographic and biopsychosocial characteristics. Overall, the residents present a profile of vulnerability that calls for preemptive action to help them stay in their homes and NORCs provide an ideal environment for them to receive supportive services (Pine, 2002).