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Over the years, cardiovascular diseases have remained one of the most dreaded illnesses worldwide. In the United States, more than 60 million Americans suffer from various forms of cardiovascular diseases. The cardiovascular disease is defined as the condition that leads to arterial disorder and disease of the heart (Edlin et al, 1999).

Accordingly, cardiovascular disease is primarily the cause of death in the United States in 1970s and 1980s period (Edlin et al, 1999), wherein an estimated number of 479,000 deaths accounted in the 1990s were attributed to cardiovascular disease where mostly common in the mortality of females (Baker, 1998).

However, the past two decades has indicated the decline of death toll in cardiovascular disease due to growing public awareness about the health risk and complemented by emerging markets on fitness program.

There are many factors that can cause cardiovascular disease. One of the major causes is physical inactivity. According to medical experts, healthy living includes having regular exercise and proper nutrition. Unfortunately, most of American children are physically inactive and have no regular exercise.

The physical inactivity alone can cause health risk conditions, like obesity (Edlin et al, 1999).  Obesity is regarded as another health risk condition that can lead to cardiovascular disease since unwanted fats are not burned due to inactivity which is common to children that may eventually develop arteriosclerosis and other diseases as they grow old.

This paper will discuss the significant public awareness on health risk condition which has been complemented by various forms of fitness programs and educational approaches to preventing the cardiovascular disease. Thus, the study will examine the effects of training with ‘Dance Dance Revolution Video Game’ on the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER) test. The use of several data through a literature review will be the method of the study.

Literature review

            Overview

In the United States, obesity is an elevated health risk, specifically on the growing number of obese children. Both private and public schools have integrated the ‘Dance Dance Revolution Video Game’ which is an enjoyable fitness program in physical education classes.

Additionally, the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER) is another form of exercise to test the endurance of patients who are being diagnosed for cardiovascular disease, and as well integrated in the physical education classes. It is therefore a complementing study to determine the effects of ‘Dance Dance Revolution Video Game’ to the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER).

The PACER Test

The Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER) is a test derived from the Beep Test and included in the FitnessGram Battery of Tests. It is considered as a maximal aerobic fitness test. The PACER test is performed on a flat, non-slippery surface up to 20 meters long.

A variation of the PACER test is performed on a 15-meter surface. To determine the early stage of cardiovascular disease development, a measurement from the starting to the finish line is mark at a measurement of 15 or 20 meters (The Cooper Institute, 2007).

With the PACER test, the participants are involved in continuous running from the starting to the finish line. There are 21 levels in the PACER test; as the participant advances in level, their pace increases and the time between beeps decreases.

When the participant is no longer able to keep up with the beeps, the test draws to a close. The PACER test is designed for teams or schools covering all age groups.

However, this test is not suitable for people wherein conducting maximal exercise can be risky. The 15-meter variation is used for students in the 2nd or 3rd grade or when there is little space to administer the 20-meter test (International Coaches Association, 2008).

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