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Healthcare should be a system of total services offered by all professional Medical health care givers and health care insurance industries.  Increasingly, however, healthcare insurance industry services in America are turning into little more than just business opportunities.

From State to State, Healthcare insurance agencies mushroom, draining down the Medical health insurance, but, does not like to pay for professional Medical health care services.  The essence of Healthcare is shattered by commercialism and politics.

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Body

History

The origin of Healthcare system as trade in America is the concept developed to provide care to individuals, considering individuals having unique characteristics and basic needs that are common to all people.

Basic needs are those necessary things which are required by human beings in order to sustain life and health.  Healthcare therefore has a special concern over assurance that the basic human needs are satisfied to maintain homeostasis and optimal level of well-being.

Maslow’s hierarchy of needs as an interdisciplinary theory designated priorities, such as: oxygen, nutrition, urinary and bowel elimination, hygiene, activity, mobility and exercise, safety, comfort, rest and sleep.  Oxygenation is a basic human bodily need much as water, nutrients, and elimination of metabolic waste.  Hygiene is maintenance of health. It is a very important aspect of human physiological need.

Many kinds of diseases can be prevented by maintaining personal hygiene.  Personal hygiene is a self-care by which people attend to such as functions of bathing, toileting, general body hygiene and grooming.  Hygiene is determined by individual values and practices. It involves the care of skin, hair, nails teeth, oral and nasal cavities, eye and perineal areas.

Mobility is an overall indicator of health because it influences the correct functioning of many body systems. Safety is the need of people to protect the self because the environment around contains many hazards, both seen and unseen.  Comfort, rest and sleep are aspects that can affect all of an individual’s health including physical well- being, mental status and effectiveness of coping mechanisms.

In the presence of pain, rest and sleep patterns threatens to compromise health status, breaking the harmony of the biopsychosocial system.  It is then in the interest of the professional Medical healthcare providers in collaboration with Medical health insurance companies as well as government to restore the integrity of healthcare industry, conserving energy, promoting survival, growth, reproduction and mastery of the human system for continuity of the human species.

In 1991, the American Nurses Association, a major US organization manifested their interest in the provision of general healthcare with the following stance: 1.) a health care system that enhances consumer access to services by delivering primary health care in community-based setting, fostering consumer responsibility for personal health, self-care, and informed decision making in selecting health care services, and facilitating the most cost-effective providers and therapeutic options in the most appropriate settings.

2.) a federally defined standard package of essential healthcare services available to all citizens and residents of the United States, provided and financed through an integration of public and private plans and source; 3.) a phase-in of essential services, 4.) planned change to anticipate health service needs that correlate with changing national demographics, 5.) strategies to reduce health care cost.

6.) case management for those with continuing health care needs, 7.) provisions for long term care, and 8.) insurance reforms to improve access to coverage (American Nurse Publishing  of the American Nurses Foundation. 1991).

Health care for Healthy people 2000 and Healthy People 2010 (USDHHS), 1990, 2000 frame-worked for national health promotion, health protection, and disease prevention supported the community-based health care, a primary health care that provides health related services within the context of people’s daily lives, in places where people spend their time, like the home, in shelters, in long-term care residences, at work, in school, in senior citizens centers, in ambulatory settings, and in hospitals.

Care is provided to individuals who have common needs and live within a defined region.

The care is directed towards specific group within the geographical neighborhood.  The group maybe established by physical boundary, an employer, a school district, a managed care insurance provider, or a specific medical need or category.   Community-based care is holistic.  It involves a broad range of services designed not only to restore health but also to promote health, prevent illness, and protect the public.

Healthcare is total medical services in the Medical and Allied Health profession. It has been conceptualized for continuous delivery of health support care at reasonable cost.  This includes: managed care, case management, patient-focused care, differentiated practice, shared governance, the case method, the functional method, team nursing and primary nursing (Beyea 1996).

This is offered within the limited human and physical resources. For example, in managed care, cost is narrowed down without sacrificing quality care, giving better results to clients.  Collaborative nursing attention is built-in up to the conclusion of the specific health problem to give the best care service at the least cost possible (Beyea 1996). Managed care implies tapered cost, clients’ approval, fitness endorsements, and precautionary assistance (Beyea1996).

Patient-focused care on the other hand, delivers all services and care providers to the clients. Activities done by auxiliary personnel: physical therapist, respiratory therapist, ECG test, and phlebotomist are brought to clients at the minimum number of workers and steps to get the work done.  This is an improved care and services at a minimum cost for the healthcare providers. Patient-focused care institutions are furnished with lying-in capacities, pharmacy, laboratory and radiology technology (Kovner 1999).

In the United States, the 1965 Medicare amendments, Title 18, to the Social Security Act provided a national and state health insurance program for older adults.  By the mid 1970’s, virtually everyone over 65 years old was protected by hospital insurance under Part A, which also includes post-hospital extended care and home health benefits.

In 1972, its coverage was broadened to include workers with permanent disabilities and their dependents that are available for disability insurance under social security.  In 1988, Congress expanded Medicare to include extremely expensive hospital care, catastrophic care and expensive drugs.

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