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Correlations refer to the degree of relationship between two related or unrelated factors. The relationship can be either positive, negative or no correlation at all. The correlation coefficient is the value of the correlation which ranges from -1 to +1, a value of 0 means no correlation.

The nearer the coefficient is to 1, the more strongly related it is, the closer the coefficient is to -1 the more is the relationship inversely correlated and the more the value is nearer to zero, the lower the correlation is.

Anna Freud focused on child therapy, she said that the best way to facilitate the therapeutic process with children is to adopt the approach of a caring adult not as a playmate or surrogate parent.

2. How did she interpret neurotic symptoms in childhood and adulthood?

Neurotic symptoms wee defined by Anna Freud as expressions of internal conflict and problems which are very similar to the actual problem. Children do not have the same developed symbolism to mask their problems.

Neurotic symptoms in adulthood were understood as the inability of the ego to take control of the id and the superego and are related to the person’s state of developmental in the corresponding stages.

3. According to Anna Freud, personality is developed how and when?

Personality is developed when the ego has to deal with the competing wishes and desires of the id and the superego as well as within the interplay of the changes that occur within the developmental time line.

4. What was the nature of Anna Freud’s classification system?

The classification system developed by Anna Freud was designed to identify at which developmental stage the child have had a traumatic experience or one that have caused the neurotic symptoms. The classification was based on the developmental line and the disharmonies that are more likely to occur at a given stage.

5. Develop a hypothetical case referral using her diagnostic profile.

Annie has refused to go to class for the past week and had been very difficult to wake up and get ready in the morning, she constantly asks for her teddy bear and refuses to leave the house without it. Annie is 7 years old, an only child of a middle aged couple who have married late. Her parents are successful in their careers and when Annie started going to school her mother left her work to take care of her.

The family lives in the suburbs and she goes to school in a private Catholic school outside the village, she does not have friends in the neighborhood. Developmentally, she is healthy, had more than the average rate of physical and motor skills development, however she lacks social skills and have not yet gotten past egocentric thinking.

6. Explain her developmental line.

The developmental line as espoused by Anna Freud identifies and traces the developmental changes and elements that a child has to experience from absolute dependency of the child to the mother until it becomes a fully functioning, self-reliant adult and to develop object relationships that represent how the person come t behave in subsequent relationships.

7. What did she mean by adolescence is `step child` in psychoanalytic theory.

Anna Freud defined adolescence as the stage at which the ego is trying to resolve the demands of the id and has to keep it in check, this is where the child tries to transfer his/her emotional bonds to other people outside the immediate family.

As a step child of psychoanalytic theory, adolescence is a new concept that has just become an important focus of study that has been found to significantly predict adult behavior patterns.

8. Explain her ego’s defenses. What is meant by identification with the aggressor?

Ego defenses refer to the different methods that the ego employs in order to protect or resolve an internal conflict between the id and the ego. Identification with an aggressor is a form of ego defense and is a variant of introjection wherein the person focuses and identifies with the negative traits of the feared object or person.

9. What dimension did Erikson add to Freud’s work?

Erikson belonged to the ego psychology movement and hence placed the ego in the center of his developmental theory, he also removed the sexual components of the original psychoanalytic theory and emphasized the role of culture in the development of the child as well as the social expectations that a child must cope with.

He also extended the developmental stages to adulthood and old age as well as incorporates the developmental tasks and virtues associated at each stage.

10. What did Erikson learn from the Sioux?

Erikson’s study and observation of the Sioux made him realize that the early developmental theory that Freud developed could not satisfactorily explain the conditions at which the children of Sioux was developing.

He also learned that culture and social norms and traditions are very influential in how the child learns everything that would enable him to become a functioning member of his culture.

11. Explain the four areas which Erikson extended Freud` psychoanalytic theory?

Erikson extended the psychoanalytic theory buy giving emphasis to the basic conflicts that a person must resolve and which can be the cause of difficulties later in life which is similar to how Freud stressed the unresolved issues of childhood, Erikson also identified the progression of basic conflicts and the virtues learned when the conflicts are resolved.

Freud focused more on the early developmental stages and lumped adulthood in general terms within the latency period while Erikson extended his theory until old age.

He says that the conflicts from earlier stages are not resolved completely and it is a lifetime of learning and experiences. Erikson also removed the psychosexual aspects of Freud’s theory and replaced it with the psychosocial elements of development which means that the child is shaped and influenced by his environment not just by sexual urges.

Lastly, Erikson stressed the role of the ego and consciousness as the recipient and decision maker in how the person strives to resolve his life issues.

12. How did Hartman differ from Anna Freud in the nature of ego function?

Anna Freud defines the ego as the controller and the observer, therefore its function is to keep the id in check and to resolve the conflicts brought about by the competing wishes and desires of the id and the ego. To Hartman, the ego is an autonomous and independent thinker that is both the guard of the id’s demands and one that has intelligence and the freedom to decide and influence the id.

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