In this paper, we will discuss the policy formulation of Healthy People 2010, on how it would become a policy, on how it could be formulated, implemented, and we will include the modification stage. But before we proceed into further details, we will give emphasis and brief introduction on what is Healthy People 2010.
According to its homepage, Healthy People 2010 offers a structure for prevention for the nation, it gives importance to health and national objective towards creating national goals to reduce risks and considerable avoidable threats to safety and health (“Healthy People,” 2007).
Healthy People were developed through its federal governments composed of pertinent scientific expertise and a council was formed as the Council on National Health Promotion and Disease Objectives for 2010. It was first developed as a broad consultation process created to the best scientific knowledge and make measure programs.
Other partners include healthy people consortium, MOU partners, business partners, and communities. Its objectives includes: increase quality and years of healthy life of all ages and eradicate health discrepancies among different ages of the population which has its own focus of area goals like cancer, disability and secondary conditions, food safety (“Healthy People,” 2007).
Policy Formulation and Implementation (WorldBank):
In making policies on a particular subject matter, a policy maker can formulate a very good step to successfully implement the policy in different sectors directed to benefit. But before it is put into practice, some guidelines are to be followed critically.
The critical path involves the preparation stage and implementation phase. In the policy formulation stage, analysis and review plans that was developed by many States that are available on the web, publications or articles. State Plans includes Healthy Alabama 2010, Healthy Alaskans 2010, Healthy Arizona 2010, Healthy Delaware 2010, District of Colombia Healthy People 2010 and many other formulated plans.
Midcourse review, data overview, progress reviews and more data sources are relevant for review sector studies. Also included in the policy formulation are the financial analysis and parameters, legal and regulatory current status, present arrangements with institutions, drafting of central policy paper with major objectives, pointing out definitions of bid process and criteria, and address issues of transaction structure.
Technical aspects includes initial overview of the system, identify service area or the states that are presently involved, estimate replacement cost and expenditure requirements, if the need to have a human resource arises, it should be estimated based on its requirements, prepare final report, and draft important sections of the information memorandum if any.
On the other hand, there is a need to specify the legal and regulatory aspect of policy formulation, it includes evaluation of its present issues, drafting of legislation and regulations, make ready for briefing papers on legislative package, endorse necessary enabling laws and regulations, create a regulatory authority, endorse charter and operational rules for regulators, select and appoint regulators, create linkage with regional coordinators and provide initial funding for regulators.
The tasks of the legal and regulatory work involves recognizing the areas with existing laws, regulations and decrees that has impact or concern on the program, study and review the existing institutional understanding and structure to identify their roles in relation to the implementation stage when there is a possibility to develop new bodies and means for coordination and management among municipal, provincial, and national functions.
This is to efficiently transfer and perform necessary tasks on the health regulation, planning and development during the implementation stage. While the economic and financial aspect is very important to be considered in policy formulation, it is a key to successful implementation and materialization of the policy.
First, we should create a financial model to review expenditures, financial statements, estimate costs and demands based on the implementation and actual creation of the policy. Costs include capital, operating, personnel, reformation and maintenance. It should also important to note the government support like foreign exchange, other guarantees and grants.
There is also a need to take in consideration the preparation of public awareness campaign so as to maximize its implementation phase, public relations and campaign can help popularize the program and eventually once the public is aware and informed they are likely concerned and participate in the long run. In the next steps, we have to organize workshop which involves private sector, community and the committee members belonging to the program, this is to ensure discussion and sharing of opinions and suggestions to incorporate the policy, legislation and regulation.
Policy evaluation make use of various research methods to thoroughly examine the efficiency and value of policy implementation, interventions, procedures, advantage, good points, and significance in improving the health of the people (“Policy Hub,” 2007).
Five key elements are important in evaluating policy, these are goals, policies, programs, mechanisms, alternatives, plans, and other measures that are accessible for attaining the objectives, dealings and associations regarding policies and objectives incorporating to established authority and agencies, determine assumptions to which policy or combination of policies is best to adopt in relation to goals, policies, and associations.
Evaluation studies selected issues in depth and detailed information related to health regulations, also involves options that are influenced by values and judgments, includes consideration on the ethical dimensions of policy making and policy implementation, inquiry on the impact of a policy, existing program or intervention of outcomes, raise questions on how, why, and under what situations does a policy intervention work, or fail to materialize.
This is important to effectively implement and deliver policies, plans or projects and on what areas of the policies are working or not and why. There is a need to use a wide range of research methods to evaluate the efficiency of policy interventions, implementations and processes.