Drug addiction happens so fast, the drug abusers gave life to it and it depends on them if they want to get rid of their addiction. The drug user’s struggle to abstain is intense and the possibility of failure will create more problems that will affect the individual’s health, income, general well being and social relationships. From the social perspective, drug addiction is not considered a disease and the rehabilitation of addictive behavior is possible with social support structure.
There are circumstances that the success of rehabilitation may not last long due to the stigma from the superficial view of religious and other groups’ orientations that drug addiction is bad personal choice of an individual, weak character irreligious behavior and anti-social personality. These impressions are useless attempts in improving the human condition. Nobody would desire to ruin their financial assets, loss self-respect, destroy their family relationships and careers, incarcerated or chose a lifestyle with blind and ignorant attitudes.
Motivation from physiological aspect seems stronger that the drug users’ conscious concerns to prevent his drug addiction. The active denial will perceive that every individual around him is ill and not himself. The weight of human motivation can be inclined to stop the individual’s addictive behavior rather than continue abusing dangerous substance. The human motivation as it relates to the issue of drug addiction will be the primary concern of this study. The unconscious human motivation can help the drug users to reach a moment of clarity that is essential to change their conscious orientation.
The application of basic motivational and emotional orientation to drug users can help an addictive personality to improve their wisdom. This study will be of great significant to drug users to kick their habit and regain their life and health and the entire society. Discussion Throughout the recorded history, the phenomenon of drug addiction occurred to some degree, one good example of previous existence is the abuse and misuse of opium. During the 20th century, there was a dramatic increase and improvements in drug’s access that created an exacerbated problem on drug addiction (Robertson, 2003, pp.
175-181). Other factors which contribute to drug addiction are the introduction of synthetic compounds like methamphetamine by the agent manufacturer (Karhuvaara, 2007, pp. 45-54). Addiction is simply means that an individual can’t stop doing something even if they want to (Gianini, 2007, pp. 275-291). The addictive effect of drugs varies from substance to substance and depends upon the body chemistry of the drug dependents. The basis for drug addiction could be defined from the problematic use of dangerous substances that triggers to increase their cravings for stronger and stronger drugs with each use.
Physical dependency and psychological dependency are two components of drug addiction. The habitual and accustomed effects of drugs to the body attributes to physical dependency. A drug user must continue to have an intake of dangerous drugs in order to feel normal and to prevent the withdrawal symptoms. Psychological dependency is another component of drug dependency that occurs when an individual habitually use the drugs and their minds become emotionally reliant to gain elicit pleasures , relieve their pains and can only be capable of functioning under the influence of drugs (Kourrich, 2007, pp. 77-82).
There is an intense craving for drugs for both aspects of dependency. Nils Bejerot is one of a psychiatrist and criminologist from Swedish who attacked the symptom theory of drug addiction. He postulated that addiction are a symptom derived from fundamental personal and socioeconomic problems that can be attributed from five risk factors including the availability of addictive substance, financial ability to acquire the addictive substance, the time to use the substance, the immediate environment is an example to use and abuse substance and the permissive ideology in using the substance (Kourrich, 2007, pp.
77-82). Nils Bejerot’s point of view on susceptibility of dangerous substance in an individual’s environment is to offer a mandatory treatment that will help them to stop using the drugs (Metrebian, 2007, pp. 213-237). The evolutionary psychological point of view on drug addiction reveals that there are certain human genes prone to substance that was selected. Although psychologist like Keith Henson suggested that an individual’s capacity to be addicted with drugs is their social attention to get rewards from social primates (Harburg, 2006, pp. 271-286).
The use of addictive drugs affects the brain’s rewards circuits that activate the release of endorphins and dopamine in their search for attention. The different substances varies the reward system depending on drug classes used, such as depressants which facilitate relaxation and relief, stimulants like amphetamines that can heightened the individual’s alertness and energy, a pleasant high feeling in the head that makes them craved for more drugs with same effect. The state of periodic and chronic intoxication from repeated consumption of drugs is known as drug addiction (Harburg, 2006, pp.
271-286). The characteristics of drug addiction includes the overpowering desire to continue taking the dangerous drugs, tendency to increase the dosage for intake, physical and psychological dependence on the effects of drugs and the detrimental effect of dangerous substance to the users as well as to the society (Blakemore, 2007, pp. 140-148). The repeated drug consumption or drug dependence can create confusion in terms of addiction and habituation but the feeling of satisfaction and psychic drive craves them to use more to gain pleasure to the point of abuse.
Drug addiction can modulate long term depression with behavioural consequences that calls for appropriate intervention (Gianini, 2007, p. 275-291). Overcoming drug addiction many times but always a failure to kick a bad drug habit and regain good health and well being is one of the dream that an individual hooked in drug addiction wants to fulfil. The hostile social judgments that categorized drug addicts as criminals or sinful human being can cause them more harm that will made them shameful, anti-social, helpless or worsened their situation by potentially attempt to commit suicide or drug overdose (Blakemore, 2007, pp.
140-148). The harmful philosophies from social judgment can be improved and can help the individual suffering from drug addiction by means of human motivation. The nature of human motivation and emotional reward of the drug is critically important in the treatment process of drug addiction. For individuals who are addicted to multiple drugs, treatment is more difficult (Gianini, 2007, p. 275-291). Each kind of addictive substance must be dealt with accordingly for successful rehabilitation of drug addicts.
It is important to look and analyze the emotional and motivational needs of drug users that were not meet while within the cycle of his addiction (Kourrich, 2007, pp. 77-82). Many drugs are known to cause addiction such as stimulants like cocaine, amphetamines and nicotine, sedatives and hypnotics like barbiturates, alcohol and benzodiazepines, opiates and opioid analgesics like morphine and codeine, cannabinoid analgesics like cannabis and marijuana as well as other addictive drugs with no medical value and are not found over the counter or by prescription (Kourrich, 2007, pp. 77-82).
Drug addiction is powered by motivational aspects of human nature which are quite analogous to a vehicle’s engine. One good example is when someone attempts to understand what went wrong with the engine of a vehicle, asking the color of the vehicle will not sufficed the intended repair and the normal operation of the engine. By knowing the nature of the engine that makes it run is very important for its normal operation. Like in the case of drug addicts, it is not helpful to ask what drugs are they taking but what aspects of their life motivate them to continue taking the dangerous drugs.
Judging and blaming a drug addict will not help them in improving their condition. The underlying basis of addiction can help in an attempt to rehabilitate the drug users. This study on the inherent motivational basis will be of great help in examining the superficial kind of socialization that predisposed the individual into drug addiction. The individual differences are another factor to take into consideration in unlocking the mysteries behind the motivationally based behaviour of drug dependents which is contradictory with the socially accepted norms and behaviour in the society.
Motivation is directly analogous with the interactive relationship that exists between the human’s central nervous system and the endocrine system which is responsible in defining the individual’s expressed emotional responses (Gianini, 2007, pp. 275-291). It is logical to express that the changes in the human body system due to excess drug exposure and chronic use of substance will have an effect on their future motivation. The Amphetamines, Cocaine and nicotine are three common drugs that are stimulants which is responsible in increasing the Dopamine – a natural neurotransmitter in the human brain.
When the drug users have too much intake of these stimulants, it will have a disadvantageous effect in the human body such as being restless and unable to sleep. A human brain needs to go through a normal cycle of conscious states and the continuous intake of stimulants will result to their waking dreams and extremely violent behaviour (Gianini, 2007, pp. 275-291). Drugs like opiates help an individual to cope with pain and critical stress and drug dependents have a habitual intake of this substance to prepare themselves for too much stress or danger (Drummond, 2005, pp. 251-258).
The pain reducing substance called endorphins can be produced within a human body are very much like opiates. A human body begin to produce endorphins in anticipation of future pain and stress before a fight or when an individual is about to give birth. In the case of drug addiction, the imbalance of endorphins and brain neurotransmitters will affect the human body’s homeostasis (Gianini, 2007, pp. 275-291). The abused substances can block, increase or duplicate the actions of human body’s natural neurotransmitters which in return will affect the moods, emotions and motivations (Drummond, 2005, pp. 251-258).
The affected cycle of human body will affect the individual’s basic perspective cognition and expressive process. Drug dependents usually lose his balanced state of homeostasis for a long term of substance dependency. The unconscious human motivation drives the drug users to experience the exciting or depressing actions that conditioned them to increase their affective use of the substance. While the drug user’s body has been conditioned to the effects of the substance, their drug tolerance will be established that will result in failing to achieve the desired homeostasis or body’s hormonal balance.
The repeated addictive behavior will have a new goal of avoiding the tolerance or withdrawal system as well as body’s discomfort . Their human motivation increases towards repetitive drug intake and the establishment of psychological denial. The continuous repetition of drug abuse will reach a point of serving only the drug user’s desire to alleviate the withdrawal symptoms. The drug user’s early motivation will no longer be possible to achieve the relatively balance state of body’s homeostasis (Pettinati, 2006, pp. 179-187).
When rewards were no longer achieved with previous motivation, drug dependents will realize and discover that they can no longer control their emotions or behaviours. This is the time that the drug dependent will start to blame himself and other people, resort to fantasy to support his ego and self efficacy (Pettinati, 2006, pp. 179-187). A dangerous cycle of expression will become faster during the drug user’s struggle and in search for new drugs to satisfy his goal. The drug user’s best balance is his imbalance brought by cyclic substance abuse with affective physiological addiction and psychological habituation.
By understanding and improving the drug user’s point of view about motivational rewards will provide hope for treatment and rehabilitation (Pettinati, 2006, pp. 179-187). With emphasis on human body’s physical, psychological and homeostatic balance, a clinical psychologist and medical practitioners can help the drug dependents towards preventative health behavior and self awareness. The treatment of drug users will be possible with alternative therapies such as exercise, relaxation technique biofeedback, herbal medicine and acupuncture.
Ensuring the success in the treatment of drug addicts is not an easy task, both the drug dependent and therapist must know and understand the real basis of addiction and must take an active role towards an awareness of the drug user’s unconscious motivational drives. The drug dependent’s motivation must be redirected into positive ways. Pill popping, drug injecting, syrup drinking, cocaine sipping and the drug user’s personal style of relieving stress and pain brought by social pressures and oppressions needs to find new methods that can help him express and not depress his feelings and expressions (Drummond, 2005, pp.
251-258). There are varieties of approaches in dealing with the treatment of drug addiction. The Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy integrated approach is one of the drug treatments that perceive addiction as a behavioural condition rather than a disease and there is a realistic possibility of correction and rehabilitation especially with social support network. The changes either in thoughts, feelings and behavior of drug dependents can affect the whole personality of an individual (Pettinati, 2006, pp.
179-187). During the recovery process of drug users, there is a need to take into consideration a number of factors such as personality, concept of spirituality, point of view about drug addiction, signs and history of mental or physical illness and the availability and affordability of rehabilitation program (Metrebian, 2007, pp. 213-237). Every individual have minds of their own, basic character and personal life orientation that will help in explaining an addictive personality.
It was considered a pathological state to suffer from drug addiction due to progression in using acute drugs, vulnerability to relapse, decreased mobility and slowed ability to react and respond to rewarding stimuli (Metrebian, 2007, pp. 213-237). The stages of drug addiction are characterized by preoccupation in obtaining the dangerous drugs, constant cravings for the substance, feeling of intoxication, withdrawal symptoms, increasing body’s drug tolerance and decreased motivation with normal life activities.
Drug addicts crave and seek for drugs despite their knowledge on the harmful effects and consequences of the substance (Blakemore, 2007, pp. 140-148). A euphoric feeling serves as the rewards with addictive drug users, a kind of learning behavior that occurred in the process of drug addiction. The transition period of an individual from drug use to addiction becomes intense during the final pathway and decreased their responses to normal biological stimuli like food intake, sexual intimacy for married individuals and with partners and during social interactions.
The more intense motivation to seek the drug is one of the prominent addictive behaviours (Metrebian, 2007, pp. 213-237). The chronic drug users suffers from psychological drug tolerance after a previous high feeling and unable to find pleasure in previously enjoyable activities that will encourage him to increase and have other kinds of drug intake for an additional “fix” which worsens their addiction.
To determine what type of treatment approaches is suited for drug addiction it is important to identify the types of drugs used, the amount of drug intake, duration of drug addiction, social needs of the drug users and medical/health complications. The recovery program from drug dependents will depend on different factors including his personality, family background, presence of physical or mental illness, financial capacity to secure drugs and the availability of drugs in their community.
The goal of treatment is to have a total abstinence from dangerous drug intake while there are situations that the treatment process will only have drug intake reduction. Drug intake reduction approach point is to see to it that the drug use will no longer interfere with individual normal activities as well as his social and interpersonal relationship. Regardless of treatment approach, the goal is to have more favourable outcome on the condition and mind set of drug users.
The long lasting goal is towards drug abstinence but the ultimate goal of the drug addiction treatment is to enable the drug dependent to recover and lead a productive life. This includes the drug dependent’s capacity to minimize the social complications and severe adverse consequences. On the health and medical aspect, the goal of drug treatment is the prevention of chronic medical illnesses such as heart disease, diabetes, hypertension, asthma and many more.
It is difficult to convince the drug addicts that there is a better life after rehabilitation and it is meaningless to someone stuck in addiction. It is not easy to understand the mental anguish among drug users who lost their families, job, property, friends and properties due to their drug habits. Human motivation for drug users needs straight answers and they needed them fast to prevent further deterioration of their drug dependency. Regaining an individual’s dignity and rebuilding one’s life means compassion and caring, a kind of motivation needed by the drug dependents (Robertson, 2003, pp.
175-181). This kind of positive motivation can reassure even the most rebellious and hard core drug addicts to gain back their dignity, sanity, self-respect, good health and total being. Drug addiction is one of a goal oriented act, a kind of learned behavior that requires effort, learning, time and money to maintain drug dependency. Although this is an obscure fact in understanding the human behavior, there is important motivational way to prevent and control addiction. Withdrawal plays an important role to prevent drug addiction.
The withdrawal plan must be assessed continually and modified to ensure that the drug user will meet the changing needs towards recovery. Additional counselling or psychotherapy is critical for effective treatment. There is a need to address the issues of motivation during the process of recovery. It is necessary that alternative plans such as building skills to resist drug use, replacement of drug use activities with constructive and rewarding non-drug consumption activities and modifying the individual problem solving abilities *(Robertson, 2003, pp. 175-181).
The strong motivation from therapist and other drug treatment experts can facilitate the recovery process. The family enticement, possible job and other drug treatment interventions can significantly increase the possibility for faster recovery from drug addiction. The recovery and treatment from drug addiction is not simple, complicated and a long term process. Addiction entangles the entire life of drug users and the pathway to recovery is narrow but human motivation can overcome the complexity of the treatment process and achieve the desired sobriety.
Motivation quest for willingness of the drug users to quit their drug habits in an attempt to put their life on the right path. In the search for motivating the drug addicts, it is important to have an inventory of the positive things on individual’s life and an honest assessment on how addiction limits one’s development. During the process of human motivation, drug addicts may suffer from fear despite of motivating factors that encourage them to go back to normal and approved societal norms and values.
They are in the process of facing a never ending series of darkness and chaotic episodes and needs help. Being trapped in drug addiction takes precedence over a logical thinking towards recovery and could not immediately believe that they will be happy in the process of sobriety. For drug addicts the only means to be happy is to continue taking drugs and the real form of motivation are to ensure that can avoid the misery brought by addiction. Conclusion Drug addiction as it relates to human motivation is an important aspect of expressing concerns in a caring manner for meaningful recovery process.
Dealing with drug addiction and human motivation is a perfect combination when hitting the positive path of life. Human motivation is supporting the drug users in their effort to recovery without giving them a chance to be manipulated like giving them financial rewards when they are in trouble due to drug habit. Motivation can help in making life without drugs more meaningful, fruitful and ideal. Human motivation applied in positive ways for individuals that were masked by the drugs will resurface and can make better decisions in dealing with life’s challenges References:
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